The Social-Ecological Transformation of Lakes in Bengaluru
This paper examines the historical waterscapes of Bengaluru, now imperilled by development. Earlier a garden city, the agrarian landscape of Bengaluru was formerly supplied with water from an interconnected lake system. This system has since been fragmented due to urbanization and changes in land cover, impacting local institutions and livelihoods dependent on the lakes. In this paper, we use the case of the city’s largest lake, Bellandur, to demonstrate the transformation of the waterscape from an open semi-arid landscape pre-dating the city into an agrarian water-dependent landscape characterized by flows of water in pre-colonial and colonial Bengaluru, and finally into a concretized landscape and the individualization of lakes in the “modern” city. Claims to and associations with the lake ecosystem have altered through changing hydrological, institutional, and social relations, leading to shifts in imaginations of the lake as well.
Goh, Kian. 2019. “Urban Waterscapes: The Hydro-politics of Flooding in a Sinking City.” International Journal of Urban and Regional Research 43 (2): 250–272. http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/1468-2427.12756. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1111/1468-2427.12756
Gurukkal, Rajan. 1986. “Aspects of Reservoir System of Irrigation in the Early Pandya State.” Studies in History 2 (2): 155–164. https://doi.org/10.1177/025764308600200202. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1177/025764308600200202
Lewis Rice, Benjamin. 1915. Epigraphia Carnatica Volume IX. Bangalore: Mysore Government Press.
Mosse, David. 1997. “The Symbolic Making of a Common Property Resource: History, Ecology and Locality in a Tank Irrigated Landscape in South India.” Development and Change 28 (3): 467–504. https://doi.org/10.1111/1467-7660.00051. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1111/1467-7660.00051
Mosse, David. 1999. “Colonial and Contemporary Ideologies of ‘Community Management’: The Case of Tank Irrigation Development in South India.” Modern Asian Studies 33 (2): 303–338. https://doi.org/10.1017/S0026749X99003285. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1017/S0026749X99003285
Mukherjee, Jenia. 2018. “From Hydrology to Hydrosociality: Historiography of Waters in India.” In Routledge Handbook of the History of Sustainability, edited by Jeremy L. Caradonna, 254–272. Oxon, UK: Routledge. DOI: https://doi.org/10.4324/9781315543017-16
Mundoli, Seema, B. Manjunatha, and Harini Nagendra. 2017. “Commons that Provide: The Importance of Bengaluru’s Wooded Groves for Urban Resilience.” International Journal of Urban Sustainable Development 9 (2): 184–206. https://doi.org/10.1080/19463138.2016.1264404. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1080/19463138.2016.1264404
Nagendra, Harini. 2010. “Maps, Lakes and Citizens.” Seminar September: 19–23. http://www.india-seminar.com/2010/613/613_harini_nagendra.htm
Nagendra, Harini. 2016. Nature in the City: Bengaluru in the Past, Present and Future. New Delhi: Oxford University Press. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199465927.001.0001
Rodriguez-Labajos, Beatriz and Joan Martinez-Alier. 2015. “Political Ecologies of Water Conflicts.” Wires Water 2 (5): 537–558. https://doi.org/10.1002/wat2.1092. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1002/wat2.1092
Sengupta, Sushmita, Aparna Pallavi, and Subhojit Goswami. 2017. “Bellandur Lake: A Story of Toxic Froth and Fire.” Down to Earth, February 18. https://www.downtoearth.org.in/coverage/environment/bellandur-lake-a-story-of-toxic-froth-and-fire-57139.
Shah, Esha. 2012. “Seeing Like a Subaltern – Historical Ethnography of Pre-modern and Modern Tank Irrigation Technology in Karnataka, India.” Water Alternatives 5 (2): 507–538.
The Economic Times. 2018. “It’s not Switzerland: Bengaluru’s Bellandur Lake Spews 10-ft high Toxic Foam.” The Economic Times, September 27. https://economictimes.indiatimes.com/news/politics-and-nation/its-not-switzerland-bengalurus-bellandur-lake-spews-10-ft-high-toxic-foam/bellandur-lake-in-bengaluru/slideshow/65978006.cms.
Unnikrishnan, Hita, Seema Mundoli, B. Manjunatha, and Harini Nagendra. 2016. “Down the Drain: The Tragedy of the Disappearing Urban Commons of Bengaluru.” South Asian Water Studies 5 (3): 7–11.
Unnikrishnan, Hita, Seema Mundoli, and Harini Nagendra. 2017. “Making Water flow in Bengaluru: Planning for the Resilience of Water Supply in a Semi-arid City.” Journal of Sustainable Urbanization, Planning and Progress 2 (1): 1–11. DOI: https://doi.org/10.18063/JSUPP.2017.01.002
Van Ginkel, Kees C.H., Arjen Hoekstra, Joost Buurman, and Rick J. Hogeboom. 2018. “Urban Water Security Dashboard: Systems Approach to Characterizing the Water Security of Cities.” Journal of Water Resources Planning and Management 144 (12): 1–11. https://doi.org/10.1061/(ASCE)WR.1943-5452.0000997. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1061/(ASCE)WR.1943-5452.0000997
Wright-Contreras, Lucia. 2018. “A Transnational Urban Political Ecology of Water Infrastructures: Global Water Policies and Water Management in Hanoi.” Public Works Management and Policy 24 (2): 195–212. https://doi.org/10.1177/1087724X18780045 DOI: https://doi.org/10.1177/1087724X18780045
Copyright (c) 2020 Sen, Unnikrishnan, Nagendra
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial 4.0 International License.
The author(s) retain copyright on work published by INSEE unless specified otherwise.
Licensing and publishing rights
Author(s) of work published by INSEE are required to grant INSEE the unlimited rights to publish the definitive work in any format, language and medium, for any lawful purpose. INSEE requires journal authors to publish their work in open access under the Creative Commons Attribution NonCommercial 4.0 International (CC BY-NC 4.0) license.
The authors retain the non-exclusive right to do anything they wish with the published article(s), provided attribution is given to the Ecology, Economy and Society—the INSEE Journal with details of the original publication, as set out in the official citation of the article published in the journal. The retained right specifically includes the right to post the article on the authors’ or their institution’s websites or in institutional repositories.
In case of re-publishing a previously published work, author may note that earlier publication may have taken place a license different from Creative Commons. In all such cases of re-publishing, we advise the authors to consult the applicable licence at article level.