Ecology, Economy and Society–the INSEE Journal <p>Ecology, Economy and Society–the INSEE Journal is an open access, peer reviewed journal of Indian Society for Ecological Economics (<a href="">INSEE</a>), a registered society since 1999.<br><em>EES</em> offers authors a forum to address socio-environmental issues from, across and within the natural and social sciences, with an aim to promote methodological pluralism and inter-disciplinary research.</p> Indian Society for Ecological Economics (INSEE) en-US Ecology, Economy and Society–the INSEE Journal 2581-6152 <p><strong>Copyright</strong></p> <p>The author(s) retain copyright on work published by INSEE unless specified otherwise.</p> <p><strong>Licensing and publishing rights</strong></p> <p><span class="gmail_default" style="font-family: georgia, serif; font-size: small; color: #274e13;">​</span>Author(s) of work published by INSEE are required to <span class="gmail_default" style="font-family: georgia, serif; font-size: small; color: #274e13;">​​</span>transfer non-exclusive publishing right to INSEE of the definitive work in any format, language and medium, for any lawful purpose.</p> <p>Authors who publish in Ecology, Economy and Society will release their articles under the <u><a href="">Creative Commons Attribution NonCommercial 4.0 International</a></u> (CC BY-NC 4.0) license. This license allows anyone to copy and distribute the article for non-commercial purposes provided that appropriate attribution is given.</p> <p>For details of the rights that the authors grant users of their work, see the <a href="" target="_blank" rel="noopener">"human-readable summary" of the license</a>, with a link to the full license. (Note that "you" refers to a user, not an author, in the summary.)</p> <p>The authors retain the non-exclusive right to do anything they wish with the published article(s), provided attribution is given to the <em>Ecology, Economy and Society—the INSEE Journal</em> with details of the original publication, as set out in the official citation of the article published in the journal. The retained right specifically includes the right to post the article on the authors’ or their institution’s websites or in institutional repositories.</p> <p>In case of re-publishing a previously published work, author may note that earlier publication may have taken place a license different from Creative Commons. In all such cases of re-publishing, we advise the authors to consult the applicable licence at article level.</p> Living In, and Thinking About, the World in Pandemic Times Kuntala Lahiri-Dutt Copyright (c) 2020 Lahiri-Dutt 2020-07-04 2020-07-04 3 2 1 3 10.37773/ees.v3i2.283 The Post-COVID India: Prerna Singh Bindra Chirag Gajjar Arunabha Ghosh Manoj Kumar Crispino Lobo Digangana Mukherjee Pradeep Nair Shannon Olsson Nitin Pandit Tina Patrao Uma Ramakrishnan Usha Ramanathan Nimish Shah Priya Shyamsundar Prashanth N. Srinivas Copyright (c) 2020 Bindra, Gajjar, Ghosh, Kumar, Lobo, Mukherjee, Nair, Olsson, Pandit, Patrao, Ramakrishnan, Ramanathan, Shah, Shyamsundar, Srinivas 2020-07-04 2020-07-04 3 2 5 11 10.37773/ees.v3i2.279 COVID-19 <p>COVID-19 continues to teach us lessons about our urban design, which has been so divorced from natural systems. Specifically, world over, it has challenged the decades old principle of urban planning which says that cities should be as dense as can be. With ingrained lifestyles in the dense concrete jungles, it becomes difficult for those who benefit from urban density to admit that there is a limit to density when we ourselves have become the vectors and victims of the virus.&nbsp; Meanwhile in densely urban India, the poor migrants bear the risk of being exported from the urban dreams that they never got to share. That may or may not change the traditional orientation toward growth-at-all-costs, but there may be an increased appreciation and demand among the urbanites for working with nature.</p> Nitin Pandit Copyright (c) 2020 Pandit 2020-07-15 2020-07-15 3 2 13–18 13–18 10.37773/ees.v3i2.252 India’s Energy Strategy for Inclusive Sustainable Development <p>Energy is critical for the growth of the economy as well as for human development. Not just electricity but also clean cooking fuels and fuels for mobility are required. India aspires to grow at a high rate over the next decade. How much energy would that require? What has been our policies? Why and how should it be changed and what kind of options do we have? I look at these issues in this paper.</p> Kirit Parikh Copyright (c) 2020 Parikh 2020-07-16 2020-07-16 3 2 19–25 19–25 10.37773/ees.v3i2.185 A Call to Redefine ‘the Field’ in Nature Conservation Studies in India Madhuri Ramesh Copyright (c) 2020 Madhuri Ramesh 2020-07-16 2020-07-16 3 2 27–31 27–31 10.37773/ees.v3i2.123 Revisiting Economic Costs of Arsenicosis <p>The present paper uses the propensity score matching (PSM) method to calculate the economic loss of arsenicosis-affected households. In contrast to prior studies, whose estimates of income loss were limited to labour-market sources, the PSM method controls for labour market and other sources of income, as well as demographic and educational factors, to identify losses from social discrimination. It first establishes that arsenicosis-affected households are subject to social discrimination, and then shows that this leads to a significant loss of expenditure. Second, it proves that overlooking social discrimination leads to an underestimation of income loss. The results have important implications, both for understanding the plight of arsenicosis-affected households and for cost–benefit calculations in the adoption of policies for fighting arsenic contamination.</p> Sanjana Chakraborty Vivekananda Mukherjee Copyright (c) 2020 Chakraborty and Mukherjee 2020-07-16 2020-07-16 3 2 33–58 33–58 10.37773/ees.v3i2.134 Role of Marine National Park for Sustainable Livelihoods of Artisan Fisherfolk <p>Over the past few decades, marine conservation has become a global concern due to increasing anthropogenic activities in the vicinity of coastal areas, which has led to the development of the concept of Marine Protected Areas (MPAs) for the conservation of marine ecology and its biodiversity. Conservation and acceptance of MPAs can only be achieved if coastal communities and fisherfolk are included as significant stakeholders because MPAs have direct relevance to their livelihood. To capture their acceptance towards the Gulf of Kachchh Marine National Park (MNP), Jamnagar, artisanal fisherfolk fishing in and around the MNP were surveyed to determine whether the presence of a well-managed MNP has any positive effects on the adjacent fishing communities since its establishment. The findings showed that the total fish catch was observed to increase over the years, but there has been a perceived decline in total catch in recent years. Similarly, while the total fish catch data recorded an increasing trend, discussions with the fisherfolk revealed a sharp decline in “catch per unit effort” in recent years. Fisherfolk from all sites showed interest in the development of the MNP and were keen to be involved in conservation planning and the management of the MNP.</p> Rohit Magotra Pushkar Pandey Mohit Kumar Mohit Kumar Gupta Asha Kaushik Jyoti Parikh Copyright (c) 2020 Magotra, Pandey, Kumar, Gupta, Kaushik , Parikh 2020-07-15 2020-07-15 3 2 59–82 59–82 10.37773/ees.v3i2.118 Flood Mitigation, Climate Change Adaptation and Technological Lock-In in Assam <p>Climate change adaptation requires communities and policymakers to be flexible in order to cope with high levels of uncertainty in climate projections, particularly of precipitation, flood magnitude and frequency, and changing human exposure and vulnerability to floods—which are even less predictable than the climate. Most of the world’s major rivers are embanked to “protect” communities from floods. Embankments—which represent a significant investment largely of public funds—are a manifestation of the professionalism of engineers and hydrologists. They are also the result of professional and political entrapment and a technological frame that grows in strength (probably non-linearly) by positive feedback to produce technological lock-in. This results in inertia in large socio-technological systems, with little incentive to adopt more adaptive and flexible solutions, including non-structural measures—such as land-use zoning—even in the face of evidence that structural measures do not always reduce damage and, in some cases, actually make it worse. Where embankment breaches are common, damage is likely to increase as climate change induces larger floods, and lock-in and path dependence increase risk. Therefore, there is an urgent need for the mitigation of floods through non-structural measures that complement embankments. The phenomena described in this paper are common in many countries.</p> Robert Wasson Arupjyoti Saikia Priya Bansal Chuah Joon Chong Copyright (c) 2020 Wasson, Saikia, Bansal, Chuah 2020-07-16 2020-07-16 3 2 83–104 83–104 10.37773/ees.v3i2.150 Editorial <p>Editorial Introduction to the Special Section.</p> Jenia Mukherjee Copyright (c) 2020 Mukherjee 2020-07-15 2020-07-15 3 2 105–111 105–111 10.37773/ees.v3i2.221 Knowledge Others, Others’ Knowledge <p>This paper examines the ways in which knowledge about water has conventionally been generated by modern water scientists and illuminates how this approach leaves out the diverse “ways of knowing” water and how scientism creates a trap of concrete evidential certainty. Through the example of a failed conversation, it questions the basic epistemological underpinnings of understanding water in modern scientific inquiries—the means of knowing rivers, and how they conflict with feminist epistemologies and fail to account for the “knowledge others” and “others’ knowledge”. The paper concludes with observations on why we need new epistemologies of water in the Anthropocene.</p> Kuntala Lahiri-Dutt Copyright (c) 2020 Lahiri-Dutt 2020-07-16 2020-07-16 3 2 113–123 113–123 10.37773/ees.v3i2.226 Imperilled Waterscapes <p>This paper examines the historical waterscapes of Bengaluru, now imperilled by development. Earlier a garden city, the agrarian landscape of Bengaluru was formerly supplied with water from an interconnected lake system. This system has since been fragmented due to urbanization and changes in land cover, impacting local institutions and livelihoods dependent on the lakes. In this paper, we use the case of the city’s largest lake, Bellandur, to demonstrate the transformation of the waterscape from an open semi-arid landscape pre-dating the city into an agrarian water-dependent landscape characterized by flows of water in pre-colonial and colonial Bengaluru, and finally into a concretized landscape and the individualization of lakes in the “modern” city. Claims to and associations with the lake ecosystem have altered through changing hydrological, institutional, and social relations, leading to shifts in imaginations of the lake as well.</p> Amrita Sen Hita Unnikrishnan Harini Nagendra Copyright (c) 2020 Sen, Unnikrishnan, Nagendra 2020-07-16 2020-07-16 3 2 125–134 125–134 10.37773/ees.v3i2.229 Fluid Epistemologies <p>By using the term “fluid”, this article critically interrogates western ontologies of “solid” (land) and “liquid” (flowing waters), which were transplanted in colonial South Asia and transmitted in post-Independence river/water policies and actions with severe socio-ecological implications. Drawing lessons from recent environmental history and political ecology of water (“hydrosocial”) literature that shed light on liminal scapes beyond the mainstream land/water binary in hydrological studies, this study conceptualizes “fluidscapes” by drawing on field research in the river islands (<em>chars</em>) of Lower Bengal. By capturing snippets of livelihoods in the <em>chars</em> of the Malda and Murshidabad districts, West Bengal, situated upstream and downstream of the Farakka Barrage respectively, this article advances why and how it is imperative to rethink sediment beyond its physical-geomorphological existence and to see it as social sites of interactions. It unravels avenues through which <em>chars</em> can be perceived as not only emblems of uncertainty but also as zones of possibility bestowed with rich ecosystem services and the collective resilience of <em>choruas</em>.</p> Jenia Mukherjee Pritwinath Ghosh Copyright (c) 2020 Mukherjee and Ghosh 2020-07-16 2020-07-16 3 2 135–148 135–148 10.37773/ees.v3i2.222 Combining Political Ecology and ‘Mésologie’ for a New Geography of Rivers? <p>How do we rethink the integrated management of river basins? This article is mainly a theoretical contribution that aims to reflect on ways of knowing rivers in the context of the Anthropocene. The authors suggest a new framework based on post-positivist geographies for a deeper understanding of environmental, political, and social conflicts related to rivers. They highlight the potential of combining political ecology and its hydrosocial cycle framework with the <em>mésologie</em> of Augustin Berque. This approach, inspired by non-modern ontologies, helps to account for the full texture of the relationship between society and rivers. It emphasizes human–environment relations and the concept of “milieu”. It particularly captures the role of lived experience in river–human relationships, by accounting for the emotions and interpretations that link people to rivers both collectively and individually. This is particularly appropriate in the Indian context where rivers are ritually revered.</p> Flore Lafaye de Micheaux Christian Kull Copyright (c) 2020 Lafaye de Micheaux, Kull 2020-07-16 2020-07-16 3 2 149–160 149–160 10.37773/ees.v3i2.231 Revealed by Water, Hidden in Water <p>This essay explores two basic trajectories of the hydro-epistemology of sacred things in Indic cultures: things revealed by water—the visible gifts of water—and things hidden in water with which we can communicate only indirectly, by touching the water. Unlike Mircea Eliade’s concept of hierophany, this represents a mode of the sacred that cannot be auto-manifest and depends on water for radiating its sacrality. While the sacred things revealed by water—the conch shell, the <em>bana</em> <em>linga</em>, the <em>svarnamukhi</em> <em>shila</em>, the <em>shaligrama</em> <em>shila</em>—are water’s gifts to the Indic religions, there are things that are hidden by water; their hiddenness maintains their secrecy and sacrality. For instance, in certain <em>Sati</em><em> pithas</em>, the petrified body parts of Goddess Sati are said to remain submerged in water. One can only touch them indirectly, by touching the water that is in touch with the Sati’s body. This article illustrates this two-pronged epistemology of the sacred that is propelled by water in Indic religious cultures.</p> Anway Mukhopadhyay Anuradha Choudry Copyright (c) 2020 Mukhopadhyay and Choudry 2020-07-16 2020-07-16 3 2 161–168 161–168 10.37773/ees.v3i2.228 Hydrocultural Histories and Narratives <p>This article focuses on water-centric quotidian-actualities by bringing to the fore collected oral histories from the field and their relation to the local religious literature—<em>Bonbibi’r</em> <em>Johuranama</em><em>, Raimangal, Manasa Mangal</em>. When asked about the water history of the region, the narratives of the locals reflect the desire to shift the attention from terrestrial–aquatic tyranny to climatic despotism. To put this into perspective, the islanders, at present, are conscious about how climate change holistically affects their deltaic ecosystem. The realization does not stop the community from engaging in age-old religious practices that have acquired habitual existence in the lower Bengal delta. This provides an entry point to a new cultural system re-centred on historical imaginations and novel spatialities, which in every aspect is exemplary for contemporary policy-makers.</p> Amrita DasGupta Copyright (c) 2020 DasGupta 2020-07-16 2020-07-16 3 2 169–178 169–178 10.37773/ees.v3i2.232 Himal Rakshak of Sikkim Rashmi Singh Copyright (c) 2020 Singh 2020-07-16 2020-07-16 3 2 179–183 179–183 10.37773/ees.v3i2.110 Why Regulations Come Up Short? Aparajita Singh Haripriya Gundimeda Copyright (c) 2020 Singh and Gundimeda 2020-07-16 2020-07-16 3 2 185–190 185–190 10.37773/ees.v3i2.107 Building Inclusive Frameworks Lavanya Suresh Copyright (c) 2020 Suresh 2020-07-16 2020-07-16 3 2 191–196 191–196 10.37773/ees.v3i2.215 Revisiting Environmental Economics: Concepts, Methods, and Policies Ramprasad Sengupta Copyright (c) 2020 Sengupta 2020-07-16 2020-07-16 3 2 197–201 197–201 10.37773/ees.v3i2.214 In Search of Post-Development Futures Anirban Dasgupta Copyright (c) 2020 Dasgupta 2020-07-15 2020-07-15 3 2 203–207 203–207 10.37773/ees.v3i2.255 Can the Twain Ever Meet? Environmental Jurisprudence and Justice in India Manshi Asher Copyright (c) 2020 Asher 2020-07-16 2020-07-16 3 2 209–213 209–213 10.37773/ees.v3i2.216 A Report on the INSEE-CESS International Conference on "Climate Change and Disasters: Challenges, Opportunities and Responses" <p>&nbsp;</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> Jeena T Srinivasan Copyright (c) 2020 Srinivasan 2020-07-15 2020-07-15 3 2 215–218 215–218 10.37773/ees.v3i2.121 Narpat S. Jodha Pranab Mukhopadhyay Rucha Ghate Copyright (c) 2020 Mukhopadhyay and Ghate 2020-07-16 2020-07-16 3 2 219–222 219–222 10.37773/ees.v3i2.90 Karl-Göran Mäler Saudamini Das Copyright (c) 2020 Das 2020-07-15 2020-07-15 3 2 223–226 223–226 10.37773/ees.v3i2.269