Ecology, Economy and Society–the INSEE Journal <p>Ecology, Economy and Society–the INSEE Journal is an open access, peer reviewed journal of Indian Society for Ecological Economics (<a href="">INSEE</a>), a registered society since 1999.<br><em>EES</em> offers authors a forum to address socio-environmental issues from, across and within the natural and social sciences, with an aim to promote methodological pluralism and inter-disciplinary research.</p> Indian Society for Ecological Economics (INSEE) en-US Ecology, Economy and Society–the INSEE Journal 2581-6152 <p><strong>Copyright</strong></p> <p>The author(s) retain copyright on work published by INSEE unless specified otherwise.</p> <p><strong>Licensing and publishing rights</strong></p> <p><span class="gmail_default" style="font-family: georgia, serif; font-size: small; color: #274e13;">​</span>Author(s) of work published by INSEE are required to <span class="gmail_default" style="font-family: georgia, serif; font-size: small; color: #274e13;">​​</span>transfer non-exclusive publishing right to INSEE of the definitive work in any format, language and medium, for any lawful purpose.</p> <p>Authors who publish in Ecology, Economy and Society will release their articles under the <u><a href="">Creative Commons Attribution NonCommercial 4.0 International</a></u> (CC BY-NC 4.0) license. This license allows anyone to copy and distribute the article for non-commercial purposes provided that appropriate attribution is given.</p> <p>For details of the rights that the authors grant users of their work, see the <a href="" target="_blank" rel="noopener">"human-readable summary" of the license</a>, with a link to the full license. (Note that "you" refers to a user, not an author, in the summary.)</p> <p>The authors retain the non-exclusive right to do anything they wish with the published article(s), provided attribution is given to the <em>Ecology, Economy and Society—the INSEE Journal</em> with details of the original publication, as set out in the official citation of the article published in the journal. The retained right specifically includes the right to post the article on the authors’ or their institution’s websites or in institutional repositories.</p> <p>In case of re-publishing a previously published work, author may note that earlier publication may have taken place a license different from Creative Commons. In all such cases of re-publishing, we advise the authors to consult the applicable licence at article level.</p> Nature and Socio-Economic Systems Kanchan Chopra Copyright (c) 2021 Kanchan Chopra 2021-01-28 2021-01-28 4 1 1 3 10.37773/ees.v4i1.403 Celebrating Jodha <p>Narpat S. Jodha (1937–2020) passed away at the age of 83 years. He is best remembered for his contribution to research on the commons and livelihoods in semi-arid regions in India. His work has transcended geographical boundaries and has won him worldwide recognition. His passing away provides an occasion to revisit the commons issue for multiple reasons, mainly that the livelihood issues that triggered the study of the commons still remain. Despite all the livelihood benefits that the commons provide, it is widely acknowledged that the commons in India are under threat, which throws open multiple questions: Is it due to the absence of secure property rights among local communities or the result of weak governance mechanisms? We also recognize that research on the commons has moved beyond livelihood issues to gender perspectives, digital commons, urban issues, and health.</p> Harini Nagendra Pranab Mukhopadhyay Rucha Ghate Copyright (c) 2021 Harini Nagendra, Pranab Mukhopadhyay, Rucha Ghate 2021-01-28 2021-01-28 4 1 59–69 59–69 10.37773/ees.v4i1.396 The Economics of Common Pool Resources <p>The paper analyses open access and common property resource systems drawing insights from new institutional economics, especially property rights theory and policy analysis. This analysis of common pool resources (CPRs) under common property regimes indicates that local communities devise formal and informal institutions in managing the local commons. The paper further discusses how N. S. Jodha’s empirical work on the economics of CPRs has enhanced our understanding of the role of CPRs in the livelihood strategies of the poor in the developing world. Devolution of authority to local resource users is emphasized as an institutional imperative in designing appropriate forms of governance structures for CPR management.</p> Bhim Adhikari Copyright (c) 2021 Bhim Adhikari 2021-01-28 2021-01-28 4 1 71–88 71–88 10.37773/ees.v4i1.377 Understanding How Local-level Environment Stewardship Initiatives Increase Livelihood Resilience to Climate Change <p>Common property resources (CPR) are central for the sustenance of biodiversity and rural communities in India. Weak institutional governance and the lack of tenure rights for local communities over CPRs is resulting in degradation and over-exploitation of resources making rural communities vulnerable across India. Climatic variabilities further exacerbate existing socio-ecological imbalances multifold. Within the broader area of vulnerability and adaptation to climate change, this paper explores how restoration of CPRs through local environment stewardship initiatives contributes to the resilience of rural livelihoods in the face of climate change. A mixed-methods approach was employed to study this aspect in six villages in two districts in Rajasthan. It was found that secure property rights and collective management of CPRs enhances household resilience and improves ecological health. It concludes that processes supporting local self-governance need to be central to local adaptation to climate change, as they naturally create resilient and sustainable rural livelihoods.</p> Tenzin Chorran Bhavana Rao Kuchimanchi Shreya Karmakar Himani Sharma Debarupa Ghosh Pratiti Priyadarshini Copyright (c) 2021 Tenzin Chorran, Bhavana Rao Kuchimanchi, Shreya Karmakar, Himani Sharma, Debarupa Ghosh , Pratiti Priyadarshini 2021-01-28 2021-01-28 4 1 89–112 89–112 10.37773/ees.v4i1.376 Gender and the Commons <p>Studies on common pool resource governance have largely focused on men, who tend to have disproportionate rights and ownership with regards property and resources. This has resulted in the access and control rights of women being generally overlooked. Gender disaggregated analyses have revealed the important role of women in the governance of the commons. While certain commons may be relatively more important for women, there are variations in their level of resource access and management role, influenced by social structures and divisions. We examined the role of gender and how such intersectionality could shape the governance of the commons in the Spiti Valley in the Indian Trans-Himalaya. We found that gender, class, and caste intersected in the governance of irrigation water. Our study highlights the role of women in the governance of the commons and points to the nuanced and variable roles found within this gender group.</p> Ranjini Murali Ajay Bijoor Charudutt Mishra Copyright (c) 2021 Ranjini Murali, Ajay Bijoor, Charudutt Mishra 2021-01-28 2021-01-28 4 1 113–122 113–122 10.37773/ees.v4i1.378 A Report of the Third Biennial POLLEN (Political Ecology Network) Conference, 2020 Brototi Roy Copyright (c) 2021 Brototi Roy 2021-01-28 2021-01-28 4 1 149–152 149–152 10.37773/ees.v4i1.358 A Report on the National Workshop on “Strengthening National Capacity to Meet the Enhanced Transparency Framework of the Paris Agreement in Bangladesh” Md. Arfanuzzaman Md. Shaheduzzaman Copyright (c) 2021 Md. Arfanuzzaman, Md. Shaheduzzaman 2021-01-28 2021-01-28 4 1 153–156 153–156 10.37773/ees.v4i1.299 A Report on the 14th Annual Meeting of the Environment for Development (EfD) Initiative Tanay Bhatt Vidisha Chowdhury E Somanathan Copyright (c) 2021 Tanay Bhatt, Vidisha Chowdhury, E Somanathan 2021-01-28 2021-01-28 4 1 157–160 157–160 10.37773/ees.v4i1.373 Culture and Land in the Making of Rural Bengal Deepak Kumar Copyright (c) 2021 Deepak Kumar 2021-01-28 2021-01-28 4 1 135–138 135–138 10.37773/ees.v4i1.347 A Wealth of Information in a Novel Narrative Sarandha Jain Copyright (c) 2021 Sarandha Jain 2021-01-28 2021-01-28 4 1 139–143 139–143 10.37773/ees.v4i1.357 Conservation Dilemmas in Contemporary India Ayesha Pattnaik Copyright (c) 2021 Ayesha Pattnaik 2021-01-28 2021-01-28 4 1 145–148 145–148 10.37773/ees.v4i1.374 So Near Yet So Far <p> </p> Kritishnu Sanyal Anupreet Kaur Shyamasree Dasgupta Copyright (c) 2021 Kritishnu Sanyal , Anupreet Kaur, Shyamasree Dasgupta 2021-01-28 2021-01-28 4 1 123–128 123–128 10.37773/ees.v4i1.309 The Impact of Exposure to Air Pollutants among Traffic Police in Bihar <p>X</p> Barun Kumar Thakur Tamali Chakraborty Ashok Kumar Ghosh Copyright (c) 2021 Barun Kumar Thakur, Tamali Chakraborty, Ashok Kumar Ghosh 2021-01-28 2021-01-28 4 1 129–133 129–133 10.37773/ees.v4i1.112 Mathematical Ecology, Evolution and the Social Sciences <p>The last few decades have seen an enhanced partnership between ecologists and social scientists, especially economists, in addressing the environmental challenges facing societies. Not only do ecology and economics, in particular, need each other; but also the challenges they face are similar and can benefit from cross-fertilization. At the core are scaling from the micro- to the macro, the development of appropriate statistical mechanics to facilitate scaling, features underlying the resilience and robustness of systems, the anticipation of critical transitions and regime shifts, and addressing the conflicts of interest between individual agents and the common good through exploration of cooperation, prosociality and collective decision-making. Confronting these issues will be crucial in the coming years for all nations, especially those in South Asia that will suffer in major ways from the consequences of overpopulation, climate change and other environmental threats.</p> Simon A. Levin Copyright (c) 2021 Simon A. Levin 2021-01-28 2021-01-28 4 1 5 12 10.37773/ees.v4i1.401 Imagining Sustainability Beyond COVID-19 in India <p>The COVID-19 lockdown in India saw a spate of news stories suggesting improvements in environmental conditions. In this article, we caution against optimistic narratives of environmental revival. First, we analyse air pollution data before and during the lockdown to show that these improvements were temporary and a by-product of the severe restrictions placed on the normal functioning of the economy. Second, drawing upon data on income and inequality, we suggest that the human suffering witnessed during the lockdown was a result of widening social disparities since the 1990s. We argue that environmental priorities cannot be separated from social concerns, and equity has to be at the centre of imagining sustainability beyond the pandemic.</p> Bejoy Thomas Soumyajit Bhar Shoibal Chakravarty Copyright (c) 2021 Bejoy Thomas, Soumyajit Bhar, Shoibal Chakravarty 2021-01-28 2021-01-28 4 1 13–20 13–20 10.37773/ees.v4i1.315 Organic Farming in India <p>Organic farming has been receiving policy support from both the central and state governments in India since 2005. The shift in policy thrust from conventional chemical-input based farming to organic farming comes as a response to the sustainability concerns surrounding Indian agriculture. Despite this, organic farming remains niche, with less than 2% of the net sown area in the country under organic production. This paper suggests market-based instruments—which have been successful in inducing changes in farming practices in some countries across the globe—as complementary policy mechanisms for catalysing the transition to organic farming in India.</p> M. Manjula P. Indira Devi Copyright (c) 2021 M. Manjula , P. Indira Devi 2021-01-28 2021-01-28 4 1 21–29 21–29 10.37773/ees.v4i1.337 Mobility Restrictions and the Control of COVID-19 <p>A recent study on the impact of mobility controls on the final size of epidemics by Espinoza, Castillo-Chavez, and Perrings (2020) found that mobility restrictions between areas experiencing different levels of disease risk and with different public health infrastructures do not always reduce the final epidemic size. Indeed, restrictions on the mobility of people from high-risk to low-risk areas can increase, not reduce, the total number of infections. Since the first response of many countries to the COVID-19 pandemic was to implement mobility restrictions, it is worth bearing in mind the implications of the Espinoza result when considering the effectiveness of such restrictions.</p> Charles Perrings Baltazar Espinoza Copyright (c) 2021 Charles Perrings, Baltazar Espinoza 2021-01-28 2021-01-28 4 1 31–43 31–43 10.37773/ees.v4i1.344 Lonergan's Contribution to Ecological Economics <p>This paper provides a brief introduction to Bernard Lonergan’s economic model, whose main features will contribute to a “transdisciplinary ecological economics”. Lonergan’s model was developed in the 1940s; however, some significant source documents only became available in the 1980s. It is worth looking at because it sheds light on current issues and may contribute to a needed “paradigm shift”. As in the searchings of contemporary ecological economics, the model calls for a new ethos. This paper touches on a few points for comparison between Lonergan’s model and mainstream and ecological economics.</p> Terrance Quinn Copyright (c) 2021 Terrance Quinn 2021-01-28 2021-01-28 4 1 45–58 45–58 10.37773/ees.v4i1.297